Nicknamed the "Bourgeois Monarch", Louis Philippe sat at the head of a moderately liberal state controlled mainly by educated elites. Elected with Louis Napoleon was a National Assembly which was filled with monarchists—of both the Legitimist (Bourbon) variety or the Orleanist (Louis-Philippe) variety. Although the governmental regime of the Second Republic continued to survive until December 1852, the generous, idealistic Republic to which the February Days had given birth, ended with the suppression of the "June Days".[1]. [37] The army believed Napoleon would have a foreign policy of war. Exactly three years later he suspended the elected assembly, establishing the Second French Empire, which lasted until 1870. A Reform Movement developed in France which urged the government to expand the electoral franchise, just as Great Britain had done with the Reform Act 1832. Louis Philippe was an expert businessman and, by means of his businesses, he had become one of the richest men in France. La révolution ayant lieu en France au mois de février 1848 incite les révolutionnaires autrichiens à se soulever. Despite agitation from the left, voters elected a constituent assembly which was primarily moderate and conservative. As a result, the people revolted, helping to unite the efforts of the popular Republicans and the liberal Orléanists, who turned their back on Louis-Philippe. ), Revolution and reaction: 1848 and the Second French republic (London and New York, 1975); S. Aprile et al., La révolution de 1848 en France et en Europe (Paris, 1998); M. Agulhon, 1848 ou L’apprentissage de la Lacking the property qualifications to vote, the lower classes were about to erupt in revolt.[9]. Ledru-Rollin was the editor of the La Réforme newspaper and as such was the leader of the radical democrats among the petty bourgeoisie. To pay for the new National Workshops and the other social programmes, the provisional government placed new taxes on land. He re-established universal suffrage, feared by the Republicans at the time who correctly expected the countryside to vote against the Republic, Louis Napoleon took the title Emperor Napoleon III, and the Second Empire began. [13] The banquet campaign lasted until all political banquets were outlawed by the French government in February 1848. Marx saw the 1848 Revolution as being directed by the desires of the middle-class. They were all bitterly disappointed in the short run. Louis Philippe was viewed as generally indifferent to the needs of society, especially to those members of the middle class who were excluded from the political arena. “The memory of 1848 in Eastern Europe: some examples”, Professor Wolfgang Höpken (Georg Eckert Institute Braunschweig and University of Leipzig). Hardcover. 10 The history of the revolution of 1848 in France has given rise to many overviews, such as R. Price (ed. The Bourbons tended to support the landed aristocracy while the Orleanist tended to support the banking and finance bourgeoisie. Accordingly, on 4 September 1848, the National Constituent Assembly, now controlled by the Party of Order, set about writing a new constitution. Louis Philippe did, however, support the bankers, large and small. The revolutions swept liberal, or reformist, governments to power, tasked with forging a new political order based on the principles of civil rights and Décrit la révolution de 1848 en Europe. In 1848, the petty bourgeoisie outnumbered the working classes (unskilled laborers in mines, factories and stores, paid to perform manual labor and other work rather than for their expertise) by about two to one. Histoire de la révolution de 1848 . End of the reign of King Louis Philippe and start of the Second Republic, Rise of conservatism within the Second Republic, G.C. The year 1848 was initially envisaged because of its importance as the year of revolutions that helped to create the political landscape of modern Europe: the rising political and economic power of the middle classes. Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie that was indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat. One of those elected to the National Assembly was Adolphe Thiers who was the leader of the Orleanist party. The "right" of a citizen to work and indeed the National Workshops themselves had been the idea of Jean Joseph Louis Blanc. "Rethinking the 1848 Revolution in France: The Provisional Government and its Enemies. The nation of Poland had been gradually "partitioned" or divided between foreign powers of Prussia, Russia, and Austria in 1773 and 1793. The keynote lecture, “The European Dimension of 1848”, was given by Professor Dieter Langewiesche (University of Tübingen), one of the editors of the seminal publication, Dowe, Haupt, Langewiesche and Sperber (eds), Europe in 1848: Revolution and Reform, (Oxford 2000). The conservative classes of society were becoming increasingly fearful of the power of the working classes in Paris. The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. "Bastiat Stands Against the Tide", "The June Revolution: The Course of the Paris Uprising" in. Because political gatherings and demonstrations were outlawed in France, activists of the largely middle class opposition to the government began to hold a series of fund-raising banquets. Anger over the outlawing of the political banquets brought crowds of Parisians flooding out onto the streets at noon on 22 February 1848. Peasants overwhelmingly supported Napoleon. By May 1848 the National Workshops were employing 100,000 workers and paying out daily wages of 70,000 livres. On 23 June 1848, the people of Paris rose in insurrection,[1] which became known as June Days uprising – a bloody but unsuccessful rebellion by the Paris workers against a conservative turn in the Republic's course. As in all other European nations, women did not have the right to vote. Read La révolution de 1848 en France et en Europe book reviews & author details and more at Cloud. The conservative elements of French society were wasting no time in organizing against the provisional government. - L'Europe révolutionnaire en 1848 (1 vol.). This would prove fatal to the Second Republic, which, without the support of the working classes, could not continue. »Alors M. Arago se dirige vers la place Cam-brai et la rue des Mathurins-Saint-Jacques,où une forte barricade, commandée par uncapitaine de la 2^ légion, oppose à la troupeune longue résistance. The year 1848 was initially envisaged because of its importance as the year of revolutions that helped to create the political landscape of modern Europe: This was the first of the 5 conferences held in the framework of the project. Indeed, most of Bastiat's early works concern the situation in Bayonne and Bordeaux, two large merchant harbors before the Napoleonic Wars, gradually devastated first by Napoleon I's continental blockade, and later by the protectionist legislation of the nineteenth century. Legitimists (Bourbons) and Orleans (Citizen King Louis-Philippe) monarchists saw Louis Napoleon as the beginning of a royalist restoration in France. François-Vincent Raspail was the candidate of the revolutionary working classes. For nationalists, 1848, was the springtime of hope when newly emerging nationalities rejected the old multinational empires. In preparation for these elections, two major goals of the provisional government were universal suffrage and unemployment relief. Consequently, he and his government did not look with favor on the big business (bourgeoisie), especially the industrial section of the French bourgeoisie. Omnibuses were turned into barricades, and thousands of trees were felled. Napoleon himself encouraged this by "being all things to all people". As a result, Louis Philippe, of the Orléanist branch, rose to power, replacing the old Charter by the Charter of 1830, and his rule became known as the July Monarchy. En mai-juin 1847, les ouvriers affamés de Paris et de Lisieux pillent les boulangeries. 1848, at best, was a glimmer … Napoleon III won the presidential election of 10 December 1848 with 5,587,759 votes as opposed to 1,474,687 votes for Cavaignac and 370,000 votes for Ledru-Rollin. [29] To meet this challenge, the government appointed General Louis-Eugène Cavaignac to lead the military forces suppressing the uprising of the working classes. GARNIER-PAGES. Neither the French Revolution of 1789, nor the July Revolution of 1830, nor the Paris Commune of 1870, nor the Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917 sparked a comparable transcontinental cascade. [11] As the United Kingdom was the largest economy in the world in the nineteenth century, France deprived itself of its most important economic partner, one that could have supplied France with what it lacked and bought surplus French goods. By the time of the December 2, 1851 coup, Louis Napoleon had dissolved the National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so, and became the sole ruler of France. They directed their anger against the Citizen King Louis Philippe and his chief minister for foreign and domestic policy, François Pierre Guillaume Guizot. Alexis de Tocqueville observed, "We are sleeping together in a volcano. [22] The February Revolution united all classes against Louis Philippe. [18] Elections for a Constituent Assembly were scheduled for 23 April 1848. There were multiple memories of the Revolution. This law was routinely flouted. The more radical democrats of the Reform Movement coalesced around the newspaper, La Réforme;[6] the more moderate republicans and the liberal opposition rallied around the Le National newspaper. Lamartine served as a virtual dictator of France for the next three months. [20] On 31 May, 15,000 jobless French rioted as rising xenophobia persecuted Belgian workers in the north. [40] Louis Napoleon won the presidential election by a wide margin over the current dictator Louis Cavaignac and the petty bourgeoisie socialist Alexandre Ledru-Rollin. As of June 1848, over 7,000 shopkeepers and merchants in Paris had not paid their rent since February. Bastiat, who was one of the most famous political writers of the 1840s, had written countless works concerning the economic situation before 1848, and provided a different explanation of why the French people were forced to rise in the revolt. A poor railway system hindered aid efforts, and the peasant rebellions that resulted were forcefully crushed. Even though France had a free press and trial by jury, only landholders were permitted to vote, which alienated the petty bourgeoisie and even the industrial bourgeoisie from the government. Le 13 mars 1848, de nombreux ouvriers et paysans manifestent dans la ville de Vienne et provoquent une grande révolte. During and soon after the events of February, Bastiat's pamphlets were reportedly plastered throughout Paris and published in both conservative and socialist newspapers. General Cavaignac had been serving in the Army in Algeria. In 1848, Poland did not exist as a nation state. At 2 pm the next day, 23 February, Prime Minister Guizot resigned. [5] Naturally, land-ownership was favored, and this elitism resulted in the disenfranchisement of much of the middle and working classes. Following the repression of the June Days, the French Revolution of 1848 was basically over. The petty bourgeoisie was pauperized and many small merchants became part of the working class. [26] The leaders of this revolt—Louis Auguste Blanqui, Armand Barbès, François Vincent Raspail and others—were arrested. A strong undercurrent of republican sentiment prevented Philippe from taking his place as king, despite the initial acceptance of the Chamber of Deputies. [17] In them, he urged the French people not to listen to the demagogues and argued that their demands were both incompatible with each other aimed at fooling them and aimed to use their sentiments for the demagogues' own political gain. Louis Napoleon's family name rallied support to his cause. See the first-hand account of Percy St. John: F. Bastiat, "A letter to a Group of Supporters", G.C. According to Bastiat's biographer, G.C. Meanwhile, economically, the French working class may perhaps have been slightly better off than Britain's working class. Vers 20 h… There was a corresponding decline in the luxury trade and credit became expensive.[21]. [31] Even with this force of 120,000 to 125,000 soldiers, Cavaignac still required two days to complete the suppression of the working-class uprising. Still, unemployment in France threw skilled workers down to the level of the proletariat. [22] Many radicals felt the elections were a sign of the slowing down of the revolutionary movement. In February 1848, the workers and petite bourgeoisie had fought together, but now, in June 1848, the lines were drawn differently. ", Kim, Richard. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. They felt a strong need for organization and organized themselves around the need for "order"—the so-called "Party of Order". Le gouvernement dirigé par Metternich prend la fuite. [38] Even some of the proletariat supported Louis Napoleon (over the petty bourgeoisie socialist Alexandre Ledru-Rollin) in order to remove the hated Cavaignac and the bourgeoisie republicanism of the National Assembly which had betrayed the proletarian interests in the recent June Days.[38]. bankers, stock exchange magnates, railroad barons, owners of coal mines, iron ore mines, and forests and all landowners associated with them, tended to support him, while the industrial section of the bourgeoisie, which may have owned the land their factories sat on but not much more, were disfavoured by Louis Philippe and actually tended to side with the middle class and laboring class in opposition to Louis Philippe in the Chamber of Deputies. Social and political discontent sparked revolutions in France in 1830 and 1848, which in turn inspired revolts in other parts of Europe. révolutions de 1848 -- études diverses. On that day 170,000 citizens of Paris came out into the streets to erect barricades. [24] It was an opportune time to raise the issue of Polish independence as Poles were also undergoing their own period of revolt in 1848 starting with the uprising in Poznań on 20 March 1848. In Europe, a wave of nationalism and liberalism led European citizens to erupt in protest against the conservative governments. Karl Marx saw the "June Days" uprising as strong evidence of class conflict. Electoral Mobilisation under the Second Republic in F rance, 1848–1851. La première rend compte de la soudaineté des événements : c'est l'« explosion », la « vague », la « flambée ». In France the revolutionary events ended the July Monarchy (1830–1848) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. The National Assembly that met in Frankfurt's St. Paul's Church failed in its attempt to establish a German nation state in the heart of Europe.