Its arrival caused a sensation and attracted crowds of visitors for several months eager to see for themselves an exotic creature from antiquity that had been newly rediscovered. Europe was witnessing a revolution in how the animal kingdom was perceived. It has the colour of a speckled tortoise and it is covered with thick scales. The carcass of the rhinoceros was recovered near Villefranche, and its hide was returned to Lisbon, where it was stuffed. (21.3 x 29.5 cm) trimmed to block line except at top sheet: 9 3/8 x 11 3/4 in. Dürer's Rhinoceros is the name commonly given to a woodcut executed by German painter and printmaker Albrecht Dürer in 1515. He places a small twisted horn on its back and gives it scaly legs and saw-like rear quarters. Dürer’s depiction of the animal shaped the European image of an Indian rhinoceros right up to the mid 18th century, when another specimen arrived in Europe. Albrecht Dürer. [32], A second woodcut was executed by Hans Burgkmair in Augsburg around the same time as Dürer's in Nuremberg. It was one of the inspirations for Salvador Dalí; a reproduction of the woodcut hung in his childhood home and he used the image in several of his works. It is thought to have sold as many as 5,000 copies in Durer’s lifetime and was to become the iconic image that Europeans turned to describe the rhinoceros until well into the eighteenth century. His woodcuts had made him one of the most famous and successful artists in Europe. David nalle: Albrecht Durer Gothic. Albrecht Durer. After resuming its journey, the ship was wrecked in a sudden storm as it passed through the narrows of Porto Venere, north of La Spezia on the coast of Liguria. Work location: Deutsch: Nürnberg, Augsburg, Venedig, Niederlande. Dürer never saw the actual rhinoceros, which was the first living example seen in Europe since Roman times. Dürer was born in Germany in 1471 and in his teenage years he became an apprentice to his father. [5][6] It is possible that a suit of armour was forged for the rhinoceros's fight against the elephant in Portugal, and that these features depicted by Dürer are parts of the armour. [48], Until the late 1930s, Dürer's image appeared in school textbooks in Germany as a faithful image of the rhinoceros;[7] and it remains a powerful artistic influence. Although the letterpress text atop this broadsheet suggests otherwise, he in fact copied the woodcut from a drawing and a description given by an eyewitness before the ship carrying this gift for the king of Portugal sank on the way from India. Extremely popular, it went through eight editions. History. Albrecht Dürer, a German painter and printmaker living in Nuremberg, was captivated by the strangeness of the animal. None of these features is present in a real rhinoceros. Le dessin est reporté sur le bois, puis gravé à la pointe et au burin, ensuite le tirage de la gravure fait que le sens est inversé sur la feuille par rapport au dessin initial. The rhinoceros travelled in a ship full of spices. Medium: Woodcut. He also assures the viewer that “This is an accurate representation”. [35][39] There is an example in the British Museum. Home Biography Rhinoceros Legacy of Durer Bibliography Biography Education. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. [1] The image is based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist of an Indian rhinoceros that had arrived in Lisbon in 1515. Eventually, it was supplanted by more realistic drawings and paintings, particularly those of Clara the rhinoceros, who toured Europe in the 1740s and 1750s. It is said that the rhinoceros is fast, impetuous and cunning. It has been said of Dürer's woodcut: "probably no animal picture has exerted such a profound influence on the arts".[7]. The Rhinoceros, which must have seemed like a mythical beast to those that viewed it first in Lisbon, would have been a potent symbol of that exotic, untamed, outside world to which Europe was bringing order and enlightenment. The image is available via Institutional Open Content, and tagged Animals. He places a small twisted horn on its back and gives it scaly legs and saw-like rear quarters. Developments in printing technology meant that his “Rhinoceros” could be reproduced in much greater quantities than previously and priced to be within the reach of the less wealthy. Dürer's Rhinoceros is the name commonly given to a woodcut executed by German painter and printmaker Albrecht Dürer in 1515. Provenance. This is an accurate representation. Title: The Rhinoceros. From David Tunick, Inc., Albrecht Dürer, The Rhinoceros (1515), Woodcut on laid paper, 8 1/2 × 11 3/4 in Durer was a master of the woodcut and had brought greater artistic vision and intellectual depth to the medium. A rhinoceros that was clearly based on Dürer's woodcut was chosen by Alessandro de' Medici as his emblem in June 1536, with the motto "Non vuelvo sin vencer" (old Spanish for "I shall not return without victory"). When Durer was young he le arned how to be a goldsmith like his father. [23] Dürer – who was acquainted with the Portuguese community of the factory at Antwerp[24] – saw the second letter and sketch in Nuremberg. Rhinoceros Albrecht Dürer 1515. 3 vols I … The woodcut was, per Quammen, p.204, cut on the block by a specialist craftsman known as a, Rough translation of the German original. Credit Line: Gift of Junius Spencer Morgan, 1919. © www.AlbrechtDurer.org 2019. On Trinity Sunday, 3 June, Manuel arranged a fight with a young elephant from his collection, to test the account by Pliny the Elder that the elephant and the rhinoceros are bitter enemies. [35] Later printings have six lines of descriptive text. Martin Lorenz and Joan Pastor: VLNL TpDuro (2019). (Bedini, p.121.) Consequently, the historical impact of the woodcut was enormous. After two years he left the apprenticeship with his father to be … It is the mortal enemy of the elephant. It was regarded by Westerners as a true representation of a rhinoceros into the late 18th century. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Asian animals previously imported for circuses and gladitorial events became scarce or non-existent in Western Europe. Jean-Baptiste Oudry painted a life-size portrait of Clara the rhinoceros in 1749, and George Stubbs painted a large portrait of a rhinoceros in London around 1790. Even so, Bruce's own illustration of the African white rhinoceros, which is noticeably different in appearance to the Indian rhinoceros, still shares conspicuous inaccuracies with Dürer's work. The Rhinoceros. . The Rhinoceros is a Northern Renaissance Wood Block Print Print created by Albrecht Dürer in 1515. It was housed in King Manuel's menagerie at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon, separate from his elephants and other large beasts at the Estaus Palace. This famous sketch of a rhinoceros was created in 1515 by the influential German artist, Albrecht Dürer, reflecting the growing interest in foreign curiosities that had emerged in tangent with the overseas voyages of exploration, commerce and conquest by the Spanish and Portuguese. [11] Many further printings followed after Dürer's death in 1528, including two in the 1540s, and two more in the late 16th century. [36] Images derived from it were included in naturalist texts, including Sebastian Münster's Cosmographiae (1544), Conrad Gessner's Historiae Animalium (1551), Edward Topsell's Histoire of Foure-footed Beastes (1607) and many others. . Schulfilm zu "Rhinocerus", einem Werk des Nürnberger Künstlers Albrecht Dürer aus dem Jahre 1515. Curator Susan Dackerman reveals the story behind the creation of Albrecht Dürer's famous "Rhinoceros" woodcut. None of these features is present in a real rhinoceros,[5][6] although the Indian rhinoceros does have deep folds in its skin that can look like armor from a distance. His decision to issue the image as a woodcut made it accessible to many more people eager to experience something of that excitement. fr:Utilisateur:Christophe.moustier Christophe.moustier ( fr:Discussion_Utilisateur:Christophe.moustier Discuter) . [43] The rhinoceros was depicted in numerous other paintings and sculptures and became a popular decoration for porcelain. Dürer’s Rhinoceros is a woodcut created by Albrecht Dürer in 1515 A.D. As an illustration of an animal at the center of a famous series of events, the woodcut was highly popular in the artist’s lifetime. [40][50], Some sources erroneously say 1513, copying a typographical error made by Dürer in one of his original drawings and perpetuated in his woodcut. Dürer's "Rhinoceros" was part of the exhibition "Prints and the Pursuit of Knowledge in Early Modern Europe," which was on view September 6–December 10, 2011 at the Arthur M. Sackler Museum. [38][40], Despite its errors, the image remained very popular,[6] and was taken to be an accurate representation of a rhinoceros until the late 18th century. La imagen se basaba en … Cet animal avait été offert par le roi du Portugal Manuel Ier au pape Leo X. Creator/Artist; Name: Dürer, Albrecht: Date of birth/death: 1471-05-21: 1528-04-06: Location of birth/death: Deutsch: Nürnberg. If a stuffed rhinoceros did arrive in Rome, its fate remains unknown: it might have been removed to Florence by the Medici or destroyed in the 1527 sack of Rome. The rhinoceros, chained and shackled to the deck to keep it under control, was unable to swim to safety and drowned. [29], Dürer's woodcut is not an accurate representation of a rhinoceros. Rhinoceros. 1. [13] The only known copy of the original published poem is held by the Institución Colombina in Seville. Albrecht Dürer never saw a rhinoceros in real life. "Albrecht Dürer The Rhinoceros (B. He depicts an animal with hard plates that cover its body like sheets of armour, with a gorget at the throat, a solid-looking breastplate, and what appear to be rivets along the seams. It sailed on the Nossa Senhora da Ajuda,[9] which left Goa in January 1515. The rhinoceros was already well accustomed to being kept in captivity. Albrecht Dürer's Rhinoceros Can you make a visual representation of something you've never actually seen? The thick folded skin of the Indian rhinoceros has been portrayed as something more like armour plating. He also notes that the skin of a rhinoceros is rougher than it visually appears and that such plates and scales portray this non-visual information to a degree. Accession Number: 19.73.159. Find more prominent pieces of animal painting at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. Discover and collect art from Albrecht Dürer’s iconic The Rhinoceros series and more. The rhinoceros’ horn is much larger and imposing than in nature and, indeed, Durer shows the animal as having a second, smaller, spiral horn on its back. Dürer produced a first edition of his woodcut in 1515, in the first state, which is distinguished by only five lines of text in the heading. Some reports say that the mounted skin was sent to Rome, arriving in February 1516, to be exhibited impagliato (Italian for "stuffed with straw"), although such a feat would have challenged 16th-century methods of taxidermy, which were still primitive. [10] The ship, captained by Francisco Pereira Coutinho,[11] and two companion vessels, all loaded with exotic spices, sailed across the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of Good Hope and north through the Atlantic, stopping briefly in Mozambique, Saint Helena and the Azores. ‘Rhinoceros’ was created in 1515 by Albrecht Durer in Northern Renaissance style. Le Rhinocéros de Dürer est une gravure sur bois d’Albrecht Dürer datée de 1515.L’image est fondée sur une description écrite et un bref croquis par un artiste inconnu d’un rhinocéros indien (Rhinoceros unicornis) débarqué à Lisbonne plus tôt dans l’année. Manfred Klein. A fine example was sold at Christie's New York in 2013 for $866,500, setting a new auction record for the artist. It is the colour of a speckled tortoise,[28] and is almost entirely covered with thick scales. Albrecht Dürer had a showman’s instincts for killer subject matter. See also a French translation in the doctoral thesis of Bruno Faidutti at l', Group of History and Theory of Science – Dürer's Rhinoceros, História do famoso rhinocerus de Albrecht Dürer, "Albrecht Dürer's Rhinoceros, a drawing and woodcut", The Durer Rhinoceros - Masterpieces of the British Museum, File:Durer's Rhinoceros on Cathedral Door, Pisa C17th.jpg, "Albrecht Dürer: Masterpieces from a Private Collection", Joachim and Anne Meeting at the Golden Gate, Portrait of the Artist's Mother at the Age of 63, Colossal quartzite statue of Amenhotep III, Amun in the form of a ram protecting King Taharqa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dürer%27s_Rhinoceros&oldid=996864863, Prints and drawings in the British Museum, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Portuguese-language sources (pt), Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Clarke, caption to colour plate I, p.181. Dimensions: image: 8 3/8 x 11 5/8 in. [44], The pre-eminent position of Dürer's image and its derivatives declined from the mid-to-late-18th century when more live rhinoceroses were transported to Europe, shown to the curious public, and depicted in more accurate representations. This may be Dürer's attempt to reflect the rough and almost hairless hide of the Indian rhinoceros, which has wart-like bumps covering its upper legs and shoulders. After a relatively fast voyage of 120 days, the rhinoceros was finally unloaded in Portugal, near the site where the Manueline Belém Tower was under construction. The German inscription on the woodcut, drawing largely from Pliny's account,[14] reads: On the first of May in the year 1513 AD [sic], the powerful King of Portugal, Manuel of Lisbon, brought such a living animal from India, called the rhinoceros. [3][4], Dürer's woodcut is not an entirely accurate representation of a rhinoceros. He did see descriptions of the animal, and even a sketch, sent from Lisbon to Nuremburg by eyewitnesses. On 20 May 1515, an Indian rhinoceros arrived in Lisbon from the Far East. Albrecht Dürer The Rhinoceros woodcut with letterpress text, 1515, on laid paper, watermark Anchor in a Circle (M. 171), a good impression of this rare and important woodcut, first edition (of eight), with the crack in the block just beginning to show in the right hind leg, with the complete letterpress text above, with 3-5 mm. 136; M., Holl. Both of these paintings were more accurate than Dürer's woodcut, and a more realistic conception of the rhinoceros gradually started to displace Dürer's image in the public imagination. The King was keen to curry favour with the Pope, to maintain the papal grants of exclusive possession to the new lands that his naval forces had been exploring in the Far East since Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India around Africa in 1498. [31] Dürer also draws a scaly texture over the body of the animal, including the "armour". The original document in German has not survived, but a transcript in Italian is held in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale in Florence. The geometrical overlays reminiscent of Duerer are another recurrent theme in Manfred Klein's work. [8] At that time, the rulers of different countries would occasionally send each other exotic animals to be kept in a menagerie. Only one impression (example) of Burgkmair's image has survived,[34] whereas Dürer's print survives in many impressions. Dürer never saw the animal himself, but the woodcut he prepared became so famous that for two centuries it was the only rhinoceros Europeans ever saw. [11], The block passed into the hands of the Amsterdam printer and cartographer Willem Janssen (also called Willem Blaeu amongst other names). But when Dürer’s rhinoceros arrived in Lisbon, things weren’t quite so straightforward. All Rights Reserved. [19][20], Valentim Fernandes, a Moravian merchant and printer, saw the rhinoceros in Lisbon shortly after it arrived and described it in a newsletter sent to the Nuremberg community of merchants in June 1515. Durer’s text at the top of the woodcut confirms the impression that the image gives of a powerful fighting beast feared even by elephants. Good surviving impressions are rare, however. [2] In late 1515, the King of Portugal, Manuel I, sent the animal as a gift for Pope Leo X, but it died in a shipwreck off the coast of Italy in early 1516. Rhinocéros dessiné par Albrecht Dürer en 1515. [14] The rhinoceros advanced slowly and deliberately towards its foe; the elephant, unaccustomed to the noisy crowd that turned out to witness the spectacle, fled the field in panic before a single blow was struck.[15][16]. Rhinocerus (Rhinoceros) by Albrecht Dürer. Albuquerque passed the gift on to Dom Manuel I, the king of Portugal. He depicts an animal with hard plates that cover its body like sheets of armour, with a gorget at the throat, a solid-looking breastplate, and rivets along the seams. [46] In 1790, James Bruce's travelogue Travels to discover the source of the Nile dismissed Dürer's work as "wonderfully ill-executed in all its parts" and "the origin of all the monstrous forms under which that animal has been painted, ever since". [41] A sculpture of a rhinoceros based on Dürer's image was placed at the base of a 70-foot (21 m) high obelisk designed by Jean Goujon and erected in front of the Church of the Sepulchre in the rue Saint-Denis in Paris in 1549 for the royal entry welcoming the arrival of the new King of France, Henry II. Cole, F.J. (Francis Joseph), "The History of Albrecht Durer's Rhinoceros in Zoological Literature," essay in Underwood, E. Ashworth (ed. Rhinoceros. [30] Alternatively, Dürer's "armour" may represent the heavy folds of thick skin of an Indian rhinoceros, or, as with the other inaccuracies, may simply be misunderstandings or creative additions by Dürer. 23.8 cm 29.9 cm. It was to be housed in the King’s menagerie at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon. The ruler of Gujarat, Sultan Muzafar II (1511-26) had presented it to Alfonso d'Albuquerque, the governor of Portuguese India. ), This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 23:58. The earliest known image of the animal illustrates a poemetto by Florentine Giovanni Giacomo Penni, published in Rome on 13 July 1515, fewer than eight weeks after its arrival in Lisbon. [25][26] and printed a reversed reflection of it.[20][27]. Despite its anatomical inaccuracies, Dürer's woodcut became very popular in Europe and was copied many times in the following three centuries. Brought from India to the great and powerful King Emanuel of Portugal at Lisbon a live animal called a rhinoceros. Albrecht Dürer The Rhinoceros (B. A live rhinoceros was not seen again in Europe until a second specimen, named Abada, arrived from India at the court of Sebastian of Portugal in 1577, being later inherited by Philip II of Spain around 1580. It is an emblem of the world of his time. In early 1514, Afonso de Albuquerque, governor of Portuguese India, sent ambassadors to Sultan Muzaffar Shah II, ruler of Cambay (modern Gujarat), to seek permission to build a fort on the island of Diu. The animal had been shipped to Lisbon in 1515 as a gift to King Manuel I of Portugal by Afonso de Albequerque the governor of Portuguese India. Original upload log (suppr) (actu) 17 juin 2005 à 22:56 . The tower was later decorated with gargoyles shaped as rhinoceros heads under its corbels. 136 (Grav. The elephant is afraid of the rhinoceros, for, when they meet, the rhinoceros charges with its head between its front legs and rips open the elephant's stomach, against which the elephant is unable to defend itself. Dürer n’a jamais observé ce rhinocéros qui était le premier individu vivant vu en Europe depuis l’époque romaine. Gilles Le Corre: 1525 Durer Initials (2010). It's fair to say that this woodcut is not a fully accurate representation of an Indian rhinoceros through its depiction of the animal being covered in what looks like armor. Dimensions: Height: 212 millimeters (woodcut) and Width: 296 millimeters (woodcut) The work I have chosen from the Northern Renaissance is Rhinocerus (Rhinoceros) by Albrecht Dürer. The popularity of the inaccurate Dürer image remained undiminished despite an Indian rhinoceros spending eight years in Madrid from 1580 to 1588 (although a few examples of a print of the Madrid rhinoceros sketched by Philippe Galle in Antwerp in 1586, and derivative works, have survived), and the exhibition of a live rhinoceros in London a century later, from 1684–86, and of a second individual after 1739. He also assures the viewer that “This is an accurate representation”. Durer never saw the rhinoceros himself. (Bedini, p.121.). But Durer’s “Rhinoceros” is more than just the depiction of an exotic beast. His form is here represented. ‎Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) who achieved fame throughout Europe for the power of his images. On the other hand, his depiction of the texture may represent dermatitis induced by the rhinoceros' close confinement during the four-month journey by ship from India to Portugal.